# Components¶

This diagram might look intimidating, but don’t worry, it is not as complex as it looks.

## Component¶

All components inherit from the abstract class Component.

If you want to skip reading about abstract classes you can jump directly to PositionComponent.

Every Component has a few methods that you can optionally implement, which are used by the FlameGame class. If you are not using FlameGame, you can use these methods on your own game loop if you wish.

The onGameResize method is called whenever the screen is resized, and once in the beginning when the component is added to the game via the add method.

The shouldRemove variable can be overridden or set to true and FlameGame will remove the component before the next update loop. It will then no longer be rendered or updated. Note that game.remove(Component c) and component.removeFromParent() also can be used to remove components from its parent.

The respectCamera variable can be overridden or set to false (defaults to true) to make the FlameGame ignore the camera for this component, making it static in relation to the viewport that is. Do note that this currently only works if the component is added directly to the root FlameGame.

The onRemove method can be overridden to run code before the component is removed from the game, it is only run once even if the component is removed both by using the parents remove method and the Component remove method.

The onLoad method can be overridden to run asynchronous initialization code for the component, like loading an image for example. This method is executed after the initial “preparation” of the component has finished the first time, meaning that this method is executed after the first onGameResize call and just before the inclusion of the component in the FlameGame’s (or another Component’s) list of components.

The onMount method can be overridden to run asynchronous initialization code that should run every time the component is added to a new parent. This means that you should not initialize late variables here, since this method might run several times throughout the component’s lifetime. This method is executed after the initial “preparation” of the component is done and after onGameResize and onLoad, but before the inclusion of the component in the parent’s list of components.

## Component¶

Usually if you are going to make your own component you want to extend PositionComponent, but if you want to be able to handle effects and child components but handle the positioning differently you can extend the Component directly.

Component is used by SpriteBodyComponent, PositionBodyComponent, and BodyComponent in flame_forge2d since those components doesn’t have their position in relation to the screen, but in relation to the Forge2D world.

### Composability of components¶

Sometimes it is useful to wrap other components inside of your component. For example by grouping visual components through a hierarchy. You can do this by adding child components to any component, for example PositionComponent. When you have child components on a component every time the parent is updated and rendered, all the children are rendered and updated with the same conditions.

Example of usage, where visibility of two components are handled by a wrapper:

class GameOverPanel extends PositionComponent with HasGameRef<MyGame> {
bool visible = false;
final Image spriteImage;

GameOverPanel(this.spriteImage);

@override
final gameOverText = GameOverText(spriteImage); // GameOverText is a Component
final gameOverButton = GameOverButton(spriteImage); // GameOverRestart is a SpriteComponent

}

@override
void render(Canvas canvas) {
if (visible) {
} // If not visible none of the children will be rendered
}
}


### Querying child components¶

The children that have been added to a component live in the QueryableOrderedSet called components. To query for a specific type of components in the set, a query first has to be registered on the set, and then the query function can be run efficiently at any later point. The register call is usually done in onLoad.

Example:

Future<void> onLoad async {
components.register<PositionComponent>();
}


In the example above a query is registered for PositionComponents, and an example of how to query the registered component type can be seen below.

void update(double dt) {
final allPositionComponents = components.query<PositionComponent>();
}


### Positioning types¶

If you want to create a HUD (Head-up display) or another component that isn’t positioned in relation to the game coordinates, you can change the PositionType of the component. The default PositionType is positionType = PositionType.game and that can be changed to either PositionType.viewport or PositionType.widget depending on how you want to position the component.

• PositionType.game (Default) - Respects camera and viewport.

• PositionType.viewport - Respects viewport only (ignores camera).

• PositionType.widget - Position in relation to the coordinate system of the Flutter game widget (i.e. the raw canvas).

Most of your components will probably be positioned according to PositionType.game, since you want them to respect the Camera and the Viewport. But quite often you want for example buttons and text to always show on the screen, no matter if you move the camera, then you want to use PositionType.viewport. In some rare cases you want to use PositionType.widget to position your widgets, when you don’t want the component to respect the camera nor the viewport; this could for example be for controls or joysticks that would be unergonomic to use if they had to stay within the viewport.

## PositionComponent¶

This class represent a positioned object on the screen, being a floating rectangle or a rotating sprite. It can also represent a group of positioned components if children are added to it.

The base of the PositionComponent is that it has a position, size, scale, angle and anchor which transforms how the component is rendered.

### Position¶

The position is just a Vector2 which represents the position of the component’s anchor in relation to its parent; if the parent is a FlameGame, it is in relation to the viewport.

### Size¶

The size of the component when the zoom level of the camera is 1.0 (no zoom, default). The size is not in relation to the parent of the component.

### Scale¶

The scale is how much the component and its children should be scaled. Since it is represented by a Vector2, you can scale in a uniform way by changing x and y with the same amount, or in a non-uniform way, by change x or y by different amounts.

### Angle¶

The angle is the rotation angle around the anchor, represented as a double in radians. It is relative to the parent’s angle.

### Anchor¶

The anchor is where on the component that the position and rotation should be defined from (the default is Anchor.topLeft). So if you have the anchor set as Anchor.center the component’s position on the screen will be in the center of the component and if an angle is applied, it is rotated around the anchor, so in this case around the center of the component. You can think of it as the point within the component by which Flame “grabs” it.

### PositionComponent children¶

All children of the PositionComponent will be transformed in relation to the parent, which means that the position, angle and scale will be relative to the parents state. So if you, for example, wanted to position a child 50 logical pixels above the center of the parent you would do this:

final parent = PositionComponent(
position: Vector2(100, 100),
size: Vector2(100, 100),
anchor: Anchor.center,
);
final child = PositionComponent(position: Vector2(0, -50));


Remember that most components that are rendered on the screen are PositionComponents, so this pattern can be used in for example SpriteComponent and SpriteAnimationComponent too.

### Render PositionComponent¶

When implementing the render method for a component that extends PositionComponent remember to render from the top left corner (0.0). Your render method should not handle where on the screen your component should be rendered. To handle where and how your component should be rendered use the position, angle and anchor properties and Flame will automatically handle the rest for you.

If you want to know where on the screen the bounding box of the component is you can use the toRect method.

In the event that you want to change the direction of your components rendering, you can also use renderFlipX and renderFlipY to flip anything drawn to canvas during render(Canvas canvas). This is available on all PositionComponent objects, and is especially useful on SpriteComponent and SpriteAnimationComponent. For example set component.renderFlipX = true to mirror the horizontal rendering.

## SpriteComponent¶

The most commonly used implementation of PositionComponent is SpriteComponent, and it can be created with a Sprite:

import 'package:flame/components/component.dart';

class MyGame extends FlameGame {
late final SpriteComponent player;

@override
final size = Vector2.all(128.0);
final player = SpriteComponent(size: size, sprite: sprite);

// screen coordinates
player.position = ... // Vector2(0.0, 0.0) by default, can also be set in the constructor
player.angle = ... // 0 by default, can also be set in the constructor
}
}


## SpriteAnimationComponent¶

This class is used to represent a Component that has sprites that run in a single cyclic animation.

This will create a simple three frame animation using 3 different images:

final sprites = [0, 1, 2]
final animation = SpriteAnimation.spriteList(
await Future.wait(sprites),
stepTime: 0.01,
);
this.player = SpriteAnimationComponent(
animation: animation,
size: Vector2.all(64.0),
);


If you have a sprite sheet, you can use the sequenced constructor from the SpriteAnimationData class (check more details on Images > Animation):

final size = Vector2.all(64.0);
final data = SpriteAnimationData.sequenced(
textureSize: size,
amount: 2,
stepTime: 0.1,
);
this.player = SpriteAnimationComponent.fromFrameData(
data,
);


If you are not using FlameGame, don’t forget this component needs to be updated, because the animation object needs to be ticked to move the frames.

## SpriteAnimationGroup¶

SpriteAnimationGroupComponent is a simple wrapper around SpriteAnimationComponent which enables your component to hold several animations and change the current playing animation in runtime.

Its use is very similar to the SpriteAnimationComponent but instead of being initialized with a single animation, this component receives a Map of a generic type T as key and a SpriteAnimation as value, and the current animation.

Example:

enum RobotState {
idle,
running,
}

final running = await loadSpriteAnimation(/* omitted */);
final idle = await loadSpriteAnimation(/* omitted */);

final robot = SpriteAnimationGroupComponent<RobotState>(
animations: {
RobotState.running: running,
RobotState.idle: idle,
},
current: RobotState.idle,
);

// Changes current animation to "running"
robot.current = RobotState.running;


## SpriteGroup¶

SpriteGroupComponent is pretty similar to its animation counterpart, but especially for sprites.

Example:

class ButtonComponent extends SpriteGroupComponent<ButtonState>
with HasGameRef<SpriteGroupExample>, Tappable {
@override
final pressedSprite = await gameRef.loadSprite(/* omitted */);
final unpressedSprite = await gameRef.loadSprite(/* omitted /*);

sprites = {
ButtonState.pressed: pressedSprite,
ButtonState.unpressed: unpressedSprite,
};

current = ButtonState.unpressed;
}

// tap methods handler omitted...
}


## SvgComponent¶

Note: To use SVG with Flame, use the flame_svg package.

This component uses an instance of Svg class to represent a Component that has a svg that is rendered in the game:

final svg = await Svg.load('android.svg');
final android = SvgComponent.fromSvg(
svg,
position: Vector2.all(100),
size: Vector2.all(100),
);


## FlareActorComponent¶

Note: The previous implementation of a Flare integration API using FlareAnimation and FlareComponent has been deprecated.

To use Flare within Flame, use the flame_flare package.

This is the interface for using a flare animation within flame. FlareActorComponent has almost the same API as of flare’s FlareActor widget. It receives the animation filename (that is loaded by default with Flame.bundle), it can also receive a FlareController that can play multiple animations and control nodes.

import 'package:flame_flare/flame_flare.dart';

class YourFlareController extends FlareControls {

late ActorNode rightHandNode;

void initialize(FlutterActorArtboard artboard) {
super.initialize(artboard);

// get flare node
rightHand = artboard.getNode('right_hand');
}
}

final fileName = 'assets/george_washington.flr';
final size = Vector2(1776, 1804);
final controller = YourFlareController();

FlareActorComponent flareAnimation = FlareActorComponent(
fileName,
controller: controller,
width: 306,
height: 228,
);

flareAnimation.x = 50;
flareAnimation.y = 240;

// to play an animation
controller.play('rise_up');

// you can add another animation to play at the same time
controller.play('close_door_way_out');

// also, you can get a flare node and modify it
controller.rightHandNode.rotation = math.pi;


You can also change the current playing animation by using the updateAnimation method.

For a working example, check the example in the flame_flare repository.

## ParallaxComponent¶

This Component can be used to render backgrounds with a depth feeling by drawing several transparent images on top of each other, where each image or animation (ParallaxRenderer) is moving with a different velocity.

The rationale is that when you look at the horizon and moving, closer objects seem to move faster than distant ones.

This component simulates this effect, making a more realistic background effect.

The simplest ParallaxComponent is created like this:

@override
ParallaxImageData('bg.png'),
ParallaxImageData('trees.png'),
]);
}


A ParallaxComponent can also “load itself” by implementing the onLoad method:

class MyParallaxComponent extends ParallaxComponent with HasGameRef<MyGame> {
@override
ParallaxImageData('bg.png'),
ParallaxImageData('trees.png'),
]);
}
}

class MyGame extends FlameGame {
@override
}
}


This creates a static background. If you want a moving parallax (which is the whole point of a parallax), you can do it in a few different ways depending on how fine-grained you want to set the settings for each layer.

They simplest way is to set the named optional parameters baseVelocity and velocityMultiplierDelta in the load helper function. For example if you want to move your background images along the X-axis with a faster speed the “closer” the image is:

final parallaxComponent = await loadParallaxComponent(
_dataList,
baseVelocity: Vector2(20, 0),
velocityMultiplierDelta: Vector2(1.8, 1.0),
);


You can set the baseSpeed and layerDelta at any time, for example if your character jumps or your game speeds up.

final parallax = parallaxComponent.parallax;
parallax.baseSpeed = Vector2(100, 0);
parallax.velocityMultiplierDelta = Vector2(2.0, 1.0);


By default, the images are aligned to the bottom left, repeated along the X-axis and scaled proportionally so that the image covers the height of the screen. If you want to change this behavior, for example if you are not making a side-scrolling game, you can set the repeat, alignment and fill parameters for each ParallaxRenderer and add them to ParallaxLayers that you then pass in to the ParallaxComponent’s constructor.

final images = [
loadParallaxImage('stars.jpg', repeat: ImageRepeat.repeat, alignment: Alignment.center, fill: LayerFill.width),
loadParallaxImage('planets.jpg', repeat: ImageRepeat.repeatY, alignment: Alignment.bottomLeft, fill: LayerFill.none),
loadParallaxImage('dust.jpg', repeat: ImageRepeat.repeatX, alignment: Alignment.topRight, fill: LayerFill.height),
];
final layers = images.map((image) => ParallaxLayer(await image, velocityMultiplier: images.indexOf(image) * 2.0));
final parallaxComponent = ParallaxComponent.fromParallax(
Parallax(
await Future.wait(layers),
baseVelocity: Vector2(50, 0),
),
);

• The stars image in this example will be repeatedly drawn in both axis, align in the center and be scaled to fill the screen width.

• The planets image will be repeated in Y-axis, aligned to the bottom left of the screen and not be scaled.

• The dust image will be repeated in X-axis, aligned to the top right and scaled to fill the screen height.

Once you are done setting up your ParallaxComponent, add it to the game like with any other component (game.add(parallaxComponent). Also, don’t forget to add you images to the pubspec.yaml file as assets or they wont be found.

The Parallax file contains an extension of the game which adds loadParallax, loadParallaxLayer , loadParallaxImage and loadParallaxAnimation so that it automatically uses your game’s image cache instead of the global one. The same goes for the ParallaxComponent file, but that provides loadParallaxComponent.

If you want a fullscreen ParallaxComponent simply omit the size argument and it will take the size of the game, it will also resize to fullscreen when the game changes size or orientation.

Flame provides two kinds of ParallaxRenderer: ParallaxImage and ParallaxAnimation, ParallaxImage is a static image renderer and ParallaxAnimation is, as it’s name implies, an animation and frame based renderer. It is also possible to create custom renderers by extending the ParallaxRenderer class.

Three example implementations can be found in the examples directory.

## ShapeComponents¶

The ShapeComponent is a basic component that can be used if you want to draw geometrical shapes as components on the screen. Since the ShapeComponent is a PositionComponents you can use effects on it. All ShapeComponents take a Paint as an argument and then arguments to define the shape of the specific component, it also takes all the arguments that can be passed to the PositionComponent.

There are three implementations of ShapeComponent, which are the following:

### CircleComponent¶

A CircleComponent can be created only by defining its radius, but you most likely want to pass it a position and maybe paint (the default is white) too.

Example:

final paint = BasicPalette.red.paint()..style = PaintingStyle.stroke;
final circle = CircleComponent(radius: 200.0, position: Vector2(100, 200), paint: paint);


### RectangleComponent¶

A RectangleComponent can be created in two ways, depending on if it’s a square or not. To create a RectangleComponent that is 300 in width and 200 in height you can do the following:

Example:

final paint = BasicPalette.red.paint()..style = PaintingStyle.stroke;
final rectangle = RectangleComponent(
size: Vector2(300.0, 200.0),
position: Vector2(100, 200),
paint: paint,
);


To create a square you can instead use the slightly simpler named constructor RectangleComponent.square. This is an example of how to create a red square with width and height 200:

final paint = BasicPalette.red.paint()..style = PaintingStyle.stroke;
final square = RectangleComponent.square(
size: 200.0,
position: Vector2(100, 200),
paint: paint,
);


### PolygonComponent¶

The PolygonComponent is the most complicated of the ShapeComponents since you’ll have to define all the “corners” of your polygon. You can create the PolygonComponent in two different ways, either you use the default constructor which takes a list of Vector2 where each of them should be between -1.0 and 1.0 that describes the ration of the length from the center to the edge of the size of the component. So [Vector2(1.0, 1.0), Vector2(1.0, -1.0), Vector2(-1.0, -1.0), Vector2(-1.0, 1.0)] would describe a rectangle that fills the full size of the component. Remember to define the list in a counter clockwise manner (if you think in the screen coordinate system where the y-axis is flipped, otherwise it is clockwise).

So to create a diamond shaped PolygonComponent which is slightly smaller than the defined size you would do this:

final vertices = ([
Vector2(0.0, 0.9),  // Middle of top wall
Vector2(-0.9, 0.0), // Middle of left wall
Vector2(0.0, -0.9), // Middle of bottom wall
Vector2(0.9, 0.0),  // Middle of right wall
]);

final diamond = PolygonComponent(
normalizedVertices: vertices,
size: Vector2(200, 300),
position: Vector2.all(500),
)


If you instead want to define your polygon from absolute points you can do that too with the PolygonComponent.fromPoints factory. When using that one you don’t have to define a size or a position either since it will be calculated for you, but if you decide to add those arguments anyways they will override what has been calculated from your list of vertices.

Example (diamond shape again):

final vertices = ([
Vector2(100, 100),  // Middle of top wall
Vector2(50, 150), // Middle of left wall
Vector2(100, 200), // Middle of bottom wall
Vector2(200, 150),  // Middle of right wall
]);

final diamond = PolygonComponent.fromPoints(vertices);
)


## SpriteBodyComponent¶

See SpriteBodyComponent in the Forge2D documentation.

## TiledComponent¶

Currently we have a very basic implementation of a Tiled component. This API uses the lib tiled.dart to parse map files and render visible layers.

An example of how to use the API can be found here.

## IsometricTileMapComponent¶

This component allows you to render an isometric map based on a cartesian matrix of blocks and an isometric tileset.

A simple example on how to use it:

// Creates a tileset, the block ids are automatically assigned sequentially starting at 0,
// from left to right and then top to bottom.
final tileset = IsometricTileset(tilesetImage, 32);
// Each element is a block id, -1 means nothing
final matrix = [[0, 1, 0], [1, 0, 0], [1, 1, 1]];


It also provides methods for converting coordinates so you can handle clicks, hovers, render entities on top of tiles, add a selector, etc.

You can also specify the tileHeight, which is the vertical distance between the bottom and top planes of each cuboid in your tile. Basically, it’s the height of the front-most edge of your cuboid; normally it’s half (default) or a quarter of the tile size. On the image below you can see the height colored in the darker tone:

This is an example of how a quarter-length map looks like:

Flame’s Example app contains a more in-depth example, featuring how to parse coordinates to make a selector. The code can be found here, and a live version can be seen here.

## NineTileBoxComponent¶

A Nine Tile Box is a rectangle drawn using a grid sprite.

The grid sprite is a 3x3 grid and with 9 blocks, representing the 4 corners, the 4 sides and the middle.

The corners are drawn at the same size, the sides are stretched on the side direction and the middle is expanded both ways.

Using this, you can get a box/rectangle that expands well to any sizes. This is useful for making panels, dialogs, borders.

Check the example app nine_tile_box for details on how to use it.

## CustomPainterComponent¶

A CustomPainter is a Flutter class used with the CustomPaint widget to render custom shapes inside a Flutter application.

Flame provides a component that can render a CustomPainter called CustomPainterComponent, it receives a custom painter and renders it on the game canvas.

This can be used for sharing custom rendering logic between your Flame game, and your Flutter widgets.

Check the example app custom_painter_component for details on how to use it.

## Effects¶

Flame provides a set of effects that can be applied to a certain type of components, these effects can be used to animate some properties of your components, like position or dimensions. You can check the list of those effects here.

Examples of the running effects can be found here;